Q: The way we think is upside-down. Our four most prominent mistaken beliefs are called the Four Upside-Down, Deluded Views. List these Four Upside-Down, Deluded Views along with the contrasting correct teaching of Buddhism.
1. Permanence ── Impermanence
2. Pleasure ── Suffering
3. Fixed/Unchanging Self ── Changing Self
4. Purity ── Impurity
It is taught that human ideas of permanence, pleasure, fixed self, and purity are upside-down. Such upside-down thoughts are called “Deluded Views.”
1. Permanence: We think that what we believe in will last forever although everything is impermanent.
2. Pleasure: We consider our lives to be joyful although the reality is that “life is suffering.”
3. Fixed/Unchanging Self: We think that we have an unchanging self although there is no fixed and unchanging self.
4. Purity: We consider things in the human world to be pure although everything in the human world is impure.
(from 2-39 of the doctrine book)